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TURBOTRAIN 


_ ' -4: 


c 




TURBOTRAINS 




NEWS FROM 

United 
Aircraft 

OF CANADA LIMITED 

Text of an address by Thor E. Stephenson, 
President of United Aircraft of Canada Limited 

We at United Aircraft of Canada Limited are truly proud that the 
Canadian National is the first railroad to adopt the United Aircraft Corporation 
high-speed turbine-powered transit system, which we are calling the turbo train. 
This forward step by the CN is another demonstration of the leadership shown by 
the CN in the field of passenger transport, leadership most recently evidenced 
by the introduction of the Rapido. 

Several years ago, UAC began a study of the problems of inter-urban 
surface transport • The need for such work had become apparent, for population 
growth and economic expansion had produced serious highway congestion,. It was 
also evident that rail passenger transport systems had not had the benefit of 
advanced engineering technology, and so the possibility existed for considerable 
improvements in passenger amenities, train performance, and economic performance* 

The division of UAC entrusted with this work was the Corporate 
Systems Center, whose president, Mr. CM. Kearns, is present today and has been 
introduced to you. The task facing Mr. Kearns and his group was to take the best 
in train technology, and marry this with aerospace technology in the relevant 
fields: aerodynamic and structural design, propulsion and passenger arrangements. 


PUBLIC RELATIONS • G. MAURICE GAUTHIER. MANAGER • P.O. BOX 10 • LONGUEUIL. QUE. . CANADA • TEL.: AREA CODE 514 • 677-9411 


The features of the train have "been described to you "by Mr, Richer, 
and so I will not go into these at this time. I would like to say, however, that 
the heart of any mobile system is its powerplant, whose performance is crucial to 
the success of the vehicle. Here the powerplant is the ST6 gas turbine engine. 
This engine, derived from our PT6 aircraft turbine, was designed and developed, 
and is in production, in Canada, at our plants in Longueuil and Jacques Cartier. 
We are very pleased that Canadians have been able to make such a contribution to 
this important venture. 

To meet the Expo '67 schedule, we must move with maximum speed on 
the manufacturing program. Despite these stringent requirements, I am pleased to 
say that we have been able to achieve about 70# Canadian content in the finished 
trains. As examples of the Canadian content, in addition to the powerplants, 
Alcan is supplying the aluminium for the cars and Montreal Locomotive will 
fabricate the cars. 

It is a great pleasure to be able to participate in Canada's 
Centennial in this way. We congratulate the Canadian National on their choice 
of this equipment and want to assure them of our full and continuing support 
which will be given in order to assure the success of this most important 
venture, to us and to this country. 


(30) 


Canadian National 

news 

REMARKS BY MB. N.J. MACKILLAN, 
EXECUTIVE -VICE PRESIDENT 
CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAYS 


What Canadian National has learned from Its 
experience in this field over the past few years, basically, 
is that modern marketing rules govern the merchandising of 
rail travel, just as they do the sale of other goods and 
services . 

A sound pricing system, combined with continuing 
emphasis on the importance of providing good service, are 
basic to success. However, equally important is the company's 
capacity to meet the needs of its customers, as well as 
keeping abreast of the need for product change from time 
to time. 

Equipment requirements are under continuing 
review in CN to ensure the availability of sufficient capacity 
on critical routes. 

In the Montreal-Toronto service, traffic is 
growing rapidly. Between these two cities total travel by 
all modes already exceeds 6,000 people per day in each 
direction. Within two years there will be 1,000 more people 
per day travelling in each direction. In ten years' time 
traffic Is expected to double. 


- 2 - 


The railway share of this market - and that means 
CN's share since we are the only rail carriers operating over 
this route - is increasing very rapidly, and the service is 
currently profitable. Net return in this service, according 
to revenue and expense projections, is expected to increase 
several times over during the next five years. For CN to 
maximise the profit potential, it r.ust add capacity to the 
Montreal-Toronto service. 

This capacity cannot be provided by drawing 
equipment out of other services, since a number of these 
are experiencing a growth rate almost as great as that which 
is now taking place between Toronto and Montreal. 

Even with improvements in passenger car utilization, 
there is a serious and growing shortage of good passenger equip- 
ment with which to operate services which are either designated 
as profitable now or potentially profitable across the system. 

CN needs to increase its fleet of first-rate 
passenger equipment to meet clearly defined market require- 
ments. At the same time the company aims to iaiprove service 
both in terms of schedules and comfort in high-volume territories, 
and to introduce new concepts in the operation and maintenance 
of passenger equipment. 

In making a decision with respect to obtaining 
additional equipment, we had two alternatives: either to 
buy conventional type equipment of basically outmoded design, 
of to seize the opportunity to move forward into a new age, 
overcoming the gap between present equipment and what could 
llg built using available technology . 


- 3 - 


CN has concluded that the turbotrain developed 
by the United Aircraft Corporation offers the best answer to 
our needs. 

The introduction of these new trains represents 
the merging of UAC's technological inventiveness with CN's 
operating and marketing skills. 

And now, if someone will take the wraps off, I 
would like to show you what the turbotrain looks like, 
as represented by this scale model, and to ask our Vice- 
President, Passenger Sales and Services, Jean Richer, to 
outline its principal features. 



Canadian National 

news 

REMARKS BY MR. DONALD GORDON, 
CHAIRMAN AHD PRESIDENT 
CANADIAN NATIONAL RAILWAYS 


As most of you know, Canadian National has been engaged 
for some time on an intensive study of an entirely new concept in 
the technology of passenger train motive power together with coach 
design and service provisions. Indeed, there have already Leon a 
number of speculative news and magazine stories and guesses about 
the type of equipment involved as well as forecasts about the speed 
potential and other aspects of what has been described as a major 
breakthrough in the field of rail passenger service. Some of these 
stories have been perhaps a little exaggerated and have not been based 
on fully factual information. Our purpose today, therefore, is to 
make a specific statement of Canadian National's intentions and to 
give a positive indication of what might be expected in respect of 
CN's decisions which have recently been made. 

After thorough study of a number of alternatives, C;T has 
decided that the turbotrain developed by the United Aircraft 
Corporation offers the best answer to our search for fast, comfort- 
able, economical and competitive equipment that will meet the desires 
of our customers and our operational requirements. Consequently, we 
have entered into what might be termed a partnership arrangement 
with United Aircraft Corporation under which we have signed a 
lease -maintenance contract to supply five Turbotrains to be built 


- 2 - 


and delivered to specifications which have been mutually agreed upon. 
This lease-maintenance contract shares between Canadian national 
and United Aircraft Corporation the experimental costs inherent in 
bringing into production a new type of operating equipment and 
gives the Canadian National an option for outright purchase. 
Obligations on both sides are discharged in stages but the 
complete purchase option will likely be cons umraa ted over a period 
of eight years. This agreement insofar as we know is the first of 
its kind in the railway industry and as T have already indicated is 
a reasonable and sensible means of sharing the development costs. 
It will be of interest also that in our negotiations with United 
Aircraft Corporation we have been able to reach an understanding 
that the Canadian content of the new equipment will exceed 70;''. 
V/e will have delivery of two sebs of those turbotrains in \pril 
1967, two in May, and one in Juno . '..Micro are of course a 

number of other provisions covering technical and operational 
requirements and warranties, but I have given you the salient 
points of the arrangement. I should add that it is our intention 
to use four of the new urbotrains in the Montreal-Toronto service 
and the fifth as a standby. We are confident that as the turbotrain 
goes into service there will be an effective demand by the public 
for this greatly improved rail passenger service and that it will be 
a highly satisfactory net revenue producing operation. 

This decision in respect of the turbotrain is one of the most 
dramatic in a series of measures undertaken by Canadian National 


. . . 


- 3 - 


over the past few years in a continuing effort to revitalize its 
passenger service. Ever 3ince CI* established marketing tests 
through the Red, White Blue fare plan and other services, it 
has been clear that Canadians would and do respond to price 
incentives designed to make rail passenger travel competitive with 
other modes. However, we also learned that to attract people to 
our trains i*e had to improve the amenities of train travel in 
respect of better equipment, better schedules and in the services 
we had to offer. In regard to equipment, this has been tackled so 
far through an accelerated renovation program of existing 
conventional equipment and more than 700 cars were jiven new 
standards of style and comfort in the years 196ij. and 1965. More- 
over, we provided a number of attractions during the train journey 
to make it/interesting. Further, we have given our passenger 
service employees a comprehensive training program of instruction 
on how to provide better service to our customers. Our aim here 
has been to make our passengers welcome aboard our trains by 
producing a feeling that our employees are glad to look after their 
comfort. Just six months ago we inaugurated between Montreal and 
Toronto the "Rapido" which is the fastest inter -city train in ITorth 
America. Other schedules have also been improved on a number of 
routes. 

Our policy view in respect of rail passenger service is that 
in specific areas there is a good market in Canada for rail 
passenger travel, given good service, intelligently-priced. We 
know, however, that not all areas have good potential. There are 


- k - 


some where the demand volume means that other modes of trans- 
portation are more appropriate to the market. Consequently, when 
the potential volume does not justify a rail passenger service 
and there is an appropriate alternative, Canadian National will 
seek to discontinue its existing service. In such areas, 
however, where no suitable alternative appears to be available, 
Canadian National will seek compensation for losses incurred in 
continuing the service if required in the public interest, I 
repeat, however, that CN will do everything possible to develop 
its passenger service where the potential is good, through the 
provision of a modern, efficient and pleasant mode of travel . 

It is in the context of this background and these objectives 
that we are making our announcement today. It is most appropriate 
that the introduction of CN's new turbotrain service, the most 
significant innovation in the technology of railway passenger 
service in the last 100 years, is being aimed to coincide with 
Canada's centennial year and the expected upsurge in travel that 
will be stimulated by such events as Expo 67. The operation of 
this new passenger service in the heavily travelled Montreal- 
Toronto route will be of tremendous assistance to the transporta- 
tion problems of that year as well as in the years to come. 

I would like now to call upon our Executive Vice-President, 
Mr. N. J. MacMillan who is in charge of operations, to add some 
detail to what I have just said. 


- 30 - 


Canadian National 

news 

MONTREAL — Canadian National Railways will have sleek, 
new, turbine-powered passenger trains operating between Montreal 
and Toronto in time for Canada 1 s centennial celebrations and for 
Expo 67, it was announced today by CN President Donald Gordon 0 

The equipment was designed by United Aircraft Corporation 
and is being obtained on a lease-maintenance arrangement with that 
company . The cars will be built by Montreal Locomotive Works, 
under contract to United Aircraft of Canada Limited and the 
turbines will be built at the Longueuil, Que . plant of UAC e 

"It is most appropriate", Mr. Gordon said, "that the 
introduction of CN's new turbotrain service, the most significant 
innovation in the technology of railway passenger service in the 
last hundred years, is being aimed to coincide with Canada's 
centennial year and the expected upsurge in travel that will be 
stimulated by such events as Expo 67 0 The operation of this 
new passenger service in the heavily travelled Montreal-Toronto 
route will be of tremendous assistance to the transportation 
problems of that year as well as in the years to come „ 11 

The new equipment will consist of five sets of seven 
cars, each set having two dome cars, one at each end, contain- 
ing the turbine power units. They will be operated in tandem 
sets of 1M- Cars and will be able to reduce considerably the 
present running times between the two cities, besides offering 
the latest in passenger comforts* Two sets, each of seven cars, 
will be delivered in April 1967, two in May and one in June 0 


The design of the errs includes a new type of suspension 
system which, combined with single axles, in place of the two 
axle trucks of conventional equipment, permits higher speeds 
over existing tracks and provides sur other riding qualities. 
The turbotrains will also feature lighter weight, faster 
acceleration and deceleration and improved braking systems 
for faster and smoother stops. 

Maintenance of the trrins will be greatly simplified. 
All wearing components - turbines, axle sets, air conditioners - 
can be replaced within an hour and it will no longer be necessary 
to hold cars out of service for long periods for on-train repairs 
or shopping. 

Passenger traffic in the Toronto-Montreal service is 
growing rapidly and exceeds 6,000 persons per day by all modes 
in each direction, CN officers revealed at a press conference 
where the acquisition of the turbotrains was announced. In 
ten years they expect it to double. CI^s portion of this 
traffic is increasing very rapidly and the service is currently 
profitable. More capacity is required and this cannot be 
provided by withdrawing equipment from other services since 
many of these are also enjoying a growth rate. The choice was 
between conventional type equipment of basically outmoded 
design or an advancement into a new age using available tech- 
nology. CN concluded that the turbotrain developed by UAC 
offers the best answer. 

The decision to obtain the turbotrain was described 
by Mr. Gordon as "one of the most dramatic in a series of 
measures undertaken by Canadian National over the past few years 


- 3 - 


in a continuing effort to revitalize its passenger service." 
The most notable to date has been the Red, White and Blue fare 
plan. Ticketing procedures have been simplified, equipment 
interiors re-designed for greater comfort, hospitality and 
children's hours provided on longer trips and faster schedules 
along with new trains were Introduced. The latest of these was 
the fiapido, which now makes the Montreal-Toronto run in k hours 
and 59 minutes and operates at a high capacity. 

-30- 


May 17, 1966. 


From: C. A. Harris 

Director of Public Relations 
Canadian National Railways 


Canadian National 

news 

WHY TURBOTRAINS WERE SELECTED 

In Canadian National's view, the Toronto-Montreal 
service offers the greatest profit potential of all its passenger 
services. The railway, for example, is now carrying 20 per cent 
more people over this line than were carried one year ago by 
both railways together in the former pool service. 

The railway expects that this growth rate will 
continue, but only if additional capacity is made available. 

This capacity cannot be provided by drawing 
equipment from other services, since many of them are also 
experiencing growth increases. 

In fact, in recent years CN has had to purchase 
or rent equipment from other railroads to handle its traffic 
growth besides renovating and restyling about ?00 cars to 
provide increased capacity and comfort. 

CN,then, had two choices in order to increase the 
line's capacity: buy conventional type equipment or seize the 
opportunity to move into a new age, overcoming the gap between 
present equipment and what can be built using advanced tech- 
nology. 

Purchase of conventional equipment would permit 
expansion of the service and might lead to improvement in 


- 2 - 


profits, but cannot produce the dramatic improvement in both 
revenues and expenses which more modern equipment can. 

CN has concluded that United Aircraft 1 s turbotrain 
will provide the best combination of technological Improvement; 
cost reduction; utilization of equipment; passenger comfort; 
all-round productivity, and, most important of all, increased 
revenues. 

The turbotrain costs much less to operate and 
therefore offers a better return on the dollar. It can also 
achieve a much higher speed than conventional trains without 
any change in existing tracks. 

-30- 


Canadian National 



s 


TUBBOTBAINS FEATURE PASSENGER COHFQRT 

Turbotralns will incorporate a number of new 
features in the interior design and passenger comfort and 
convenience . 

Canadian National and United Aircraft designers 
are working together to create an interior that will have a 
recognizable "CN look" which at the same time will be totally 
new in the world of travel. 

Improved features will include better heating 
and airconditioning, greater noise suppression, more comfort- 
able seating and an elegant interior environment, unmatched 
in attractiveness. 

There will be carpeting throughout the train, 
tinted glass and adjustable blinds for each window, soft 
indirect lighting and individually controlled reading lights 
for each traveller. 

Parlor car passengers, who will occupy about 2$% 
of the passenger space, will be served meals and beverages at 
their seats, from galleys in each car. 

Coach passengers will have buffeterias or service 
centres at several points in the train where they can obtain 
hot and cold food and refreshments to take back to their seats. 


1 


- 2 - 


In both coaches and parlor cars there will be fold- 
away table trays at each seat from which meals will be eaten. 
The reclining seats, situated two abreast on each side of the 
centre aisle, will be designed for comfort and roominess. 

Individual reading lamps, controlled separately by 
each passenger, will be located in the overhead luggage racks 
in coaches and in the ceilings in parlor cars. Both coaches and 
parlor cars will be equipped with luggage compartments near 
the entrance doors. 

All cars will be airconditioned, with injection vents 
in the celling and exhaust vents over the baggage racks to 
remove cigarette smoke from the air. The injection vents will 
also serve to heat the car. 

Each car will be slightly pressurized to prevent 
dust and dirt from entering the cars and also to contribute to 
the quietness of the ride by isolating travellers from outside 
noise. 

The four dome cars per tandem train, will each 
offer a sweeping view of the passing countryside. Two of them 
will service as refreshment lounges. Each dome will seat 
twelve passengers. 

Boarding from the low-level platforms of Toronto's 
Union Station, passengers will go up three steps into the train 
while from the higher platforms in Central Station they will 
descend two steps. 

The new equipment will meet all the safety and 
structural requirements of the Association of American Hail- 
roads and the Board of Transport Comnii ssioners. 

-30- 


Canadian National 

news 

THE TURBOTBAIjj IN OPgRATION 

Except for the fact that It will have steel wheels 
on steel rails, Canadian National's turbotrain represents a 
truly new concept in railway passenger equipment. 

It is the first major breakthrough in railway 
technology since diesel locomotion. 

The turbotrain is designed along aerodynamic 
lines to reduce "dead" weight and air resistance. 

It will be of aluminum construction in practic- 
ally all instances. The nose has a long streamlined look, 
the sides, roof and skinned belly are curved, the skin is 
smooth, windows are flush and smooth outer diaphragms between 
cars are used. 

?o further reduce weight, single axle suspension 
is substituted for the two axle trucks of conventional equip- 
ment, except on the ends of the power units. 

The train was designed by United Aircraft Corporate 
Systems Center of Farmington, Connecticut, a division of United 
Aircraft Corporation. It is designed to be stronger, lighter, 
faster, quieter, smoother and more reliable than conventional 
trains - and cheaper to run. 

Performances were calculated through detailed 
studies iiade with the help of computers at United Aircraft 


- 2 - 


Research Laboratories from a train performance calculator 
program developed by Canadian National. This simulated actual 
train operations over present trackage, including all curves, 
crossings and grades as they now exist on the runs studied. 

Montreal Locoxiotive Works will be a major 
subcontractor of UAC for the production of five train sets 
of seven articulated cars each. 

Analyses by United Aircraft indicate that a seven- 
car turbine train of 3^0 passenger capacity, operating over 
a 330 mile route, would cost about 30$ less per mile to run 
than a conventional train of the same capacity on the same 
route. 

Motive power for the turbotrain will be contained 
■in a domed, passenger-carrying car, of which there are two 
to each train set of seven cars. The lead car pulls the 
train while the rear one pushes. In the Montreal-Toronto 
service each train will be made up of two train sets operating 
in tandem, making in all four domed cars - one at each end and 
two in the middle - together with ten intermediate cars. 

The power plants will be modified models of the 
Pratt & Whitney PT6 free-turbine aircraft engine. Weighing 
only 250 pounds each, the turbines will be five feet long, 
and one-and-a-half feet in diameter. They will burn con- 
ventional diesel fuel and will be capable of developing up 
to *K)0 "h.p. each. 

The turbines do not require warm-ups as diesels 
do, can be started quickly at temperatures as cold as 60 below 
zero, and reach full power in less than 30 seconds. They are 
virtually noiseless and vibrationless. 


- 3 - 


Designed by United Aircraft of Canada Limited, the 
turbines will be built at the company's Longueiiil, Que. plant. 

Acceleration rate of the turbotrain will be 
faster than diesel locomotives: about 100 miles per hour 
within five minutes of starting. 

There will be three turbines in some power-dome 
units and two in others; two to drive the train and the third 
linked to a generator which will supply the trains electrical 
requirements. The turbotrain's heating and air conditioning 
systems will be all electrical. Today's passenger trains 
are steam heated. 

Floors of the cars on the new train will be 
only 32 inches above rail, 10 inches lower than conventional 
passenger cars. Overall height of the new cars is 11 feet 
compared to 13-and-a-half feet for present equipment; width, 
10 feet, compared to nine-and-a-half feet on the old. 

The lower centre of gravity, combined with a 
pendulous suspension system and guided axles, will permit 
the train to take curves at speeds up to 30 per cent faster 
than is now possible. 

The suspension system has inclined supported 
links which act through air cushion springs and these in 
turn support the car. This gives a pendulum like effect so 
that on curves the cars bank inward, not outward as in 
conventional equipment. As a result, passengers are not 
conscious of swaying and lurching on the curves. 

Also contributing to the better riding qualities 
is the train's guided axle system. Using a "turnbuckle" 


- 4 - 


device, the train is positively steered and does not depend 
on the flange part of the wheel for that purpose. Con- 
sequently, there is a reduction in v:ear on both wheel f?*nd 
track and grafter passenger comfort. 

The turbotrain will also have an improved braking 
system, using composition brake shoes on tr~~ds. It is elec- 
trically controlled which reduces response tine, and nlso 
has a secondary pneumatic control for added safety. This, 
together with very light train weight, will mean quicker and 
smoother stops. 

Easy maintenance will also be a design feature 
of the turbotrain. All wearing components, whether turbines, 
axle sets or air conditioners can be replaced within an hour. 
It will no longer be necessary to hold cars out of service for 
long periods of time for on-train repairs or shopping. Only 
the faulty component is taken out of the service. The train 
can be kept rolling and earning. 

To further improve utilization and at the same 
time reduce operating costs, the turbotrain is bi-directional. 
The time formerly consumed in turning and switching is now 
available for revenue operations and the cost of switching 
and turning is eliminated. In the past, articulated tr-ins 
have been handicapped by being of fixed size and capacity, 
unadaptable to changes in passenger loads. To increase the 
capacity of the turbotrain, two or more sets can be simply 
and automatically coupled together. The streamlined ends 
of the turbotrain are actually nose doors covering an auto- 
matic coupler and passageway. 


Passengers will enter and leave through sliding 
doors located in the middle of each car and will have shorter 
distances to walk between doors and their seats. There will 
be no doors between cars; passengers will have an uninterrupted 
view down the centre aisle. 

The turbotrain's cars will be pressurized slightly 
to keep out noise, dirt, snow, heat and cold. 


Canadian National 



TURBOTRAIN vs. CONVENTIONAL TRAIN 
A COMPARISON 


An understanding and appreciation of the turbotrain 
can be obtained from this comparison with the conventional 
passenger train. The conventional train used in this example is 
about equal to Canadian National's Rapido now in operation 
between Toronto and Montreal: 

turbotrain Conventional 
(two, seven-car 

sets in tandem) 


No, of Locomotives 

No. of Gas Turbines (for traction) 

No. of Cars 

Average Length of Cars 

No. of Passenger Places 

Weight (empty) including motive 
power 

Weight per passenger place 

Weight per foot of length 

No. of Domes 

No. of Dining Cars 

Total Horsepower 

Best Schedule Between 
Montreal-Toronto 


None 

8 
14 


3 

None 
13 


59 ft. (dome car) 85 ft 
50 ft. (inter- 
mediate cars) 


680 

600,000 lbs. 

900 lbs. 
780 lbs. 
4 

None 
3,200 

3 hours plus 


640 

2,300,000 lbs 

3,600 lbs. 
1,840 lbs. 

None 
2 

5,4'-0 


4 hrs. 59 
mins . 


Top Speed Potential 

Height of Floor Above Rail 

Overall Height - Regular 

- Domes 

Interior Width 


Turbo train 
(two, seven-car 
sets in tandem 

160 m.p.h. 

32 inches 

11 ft. 
13 ft. 

10 ft. 


Conventional 


90 ra.p.h. 

k2 inches 

13 ft. 6 ins. 

9 ft. 6 ins. 


-30- 




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